Key Considerations For Starting A Business In Luxembourg In 2024

Luxembourg, known for its stable economy and business-friendly environment, attracts entrepreneurs from around the globe. Entrepreneurs are drawn to its business-friendly environment and high quality of life.

However, there are specific considerations when setting up a business in Luxembourg. One must assess the economic state, legal and regulatory requirements, taxation laws, and labour regulations. Ensuring compliance with these aspects is key to thriving in this attractive European business hub.

With the right preparation and knowledge, establishing a business in Luxembourg can be a rewarding venture for those seeking stability and growth in the heart of Europe.


Economic Overview


Luxembourg, renowned for its wealth and financial expertise, is experiencing a period of cautious economic recovery. Despite its strong historical performance, current challenges are creating a more measured outlook.

Following a strong performance in 2022, Luxembourg’s growth is expected to slow to 1.4% in 2024, according to the European Commission. This deceleration is attributed to weaker exports and investments amid global uncertainties and tighter financing conditions. On a positive note, inflation, which peaked at nearly 3% in 2023, is projected to decrease to around 2.3% in 2024, thanks to stabilising energy and food prices.

Luxembourg’s labour market is a strong point, with low unemployment rates supporting consumer spending and economic stability. However, geopolitical tensions, particularly the ongoing war in Ukraine, continue to disrupt supply chains and increase energy costs, affecting the country’s export-driven economy. Additionally, increased government spending to counter inflation might expand the budget deficit, posing a challenge to fiscal sustainability.

Luxembourg is also focusing on innovation, promoting itself as a hub for FinTech and green technologies. This emphasis on future-oriented industries could drive long-term growth.

While short-term growth is modest, Luxembourg’s strong fundamentals and innovation focus provide a solid foundation for future recovery. Balancing global challenges and fiscal responsibility will be key to sustained economic success.


Legal And Regulatory Framework


Luxembourg’s business registration is notably streamlined. The portal serves as a one-stop shop, allowing online registration for most business entities and eliminating the need for multiple agency visits.

When selecting your business structure, foreign investors often choose between two options. A Limited Liability Company requires a minimum share capital of €12,000, with at least €2,500 paid upon incorporation. Alternatively, the Société Anonyme (SA), suitable for larger enterprises seeking capital market access, demands a minimum capital of €30,000, with at least 25% paid up.

Essential documents include the Articles of Association, proof of identity for founders, and a business plan. While registration fees are generally low, they can vary based on the business structure chosen.

Local regulations may vary, including zoning restrictions and operational schedules. Consulting a local advisor ensures compliance with municipal regulations. While the registration process is efficient, staying informed about local regulations and seeking expert advice can help ensure a successful business launch.



Taxation And Financial Management


Navigating the tax system in Luxembourg is essential for any startup aiming to capitalise on the country’s financial advantages. Luxembourg’s tax regime is known for its favourable conditions, particularly for businesses with international operations.

Corporate Income Tax (CIT) in Luxembourg is set at a competitive 17% on taxable profits, one of the lowest rates in the EU. A notable benefit is the 80% exemption on income derived from qualifying intellectual property rights, reducing the effective tax rate on such income to just 3.4%.

Value Added Tax (VAT) applies to most goods and services at a standard rate of 17%. There are also reduced rates of 8% and 14% for specific essential items such as food, medicine, and public transportation. VAT registration becomes mandatory if your annual turnover exceeds €25,000.

Other key taxes include the Municipal Business Tax, which varies between 6% and 12% depending on the commune, and the Net Wealth Tax, applicable annually based on a company’s total assets. However, this tax does not apply to newly established startups or sole proprietorships.

Tax filing frequency is determined by your company’s size and VAT registration status. Luxembourg’s extensive network of double taxation treaties is designed to prevent double taxation on income earned abroad. Due to the complexity of the tax code, consulting a tax advisor is recommended to ensure compliance and optimise your tax strategy.


Hiring And Managing Employees


Employment contracts in Luxembourg must be written, detailing job duties, compensation, benefits, working hours, and termination clauses. Common contract types include fixed-term and open-ended, with strict termination regulations for both. Contracts are typically in French or German.

The standard workweek in Luxembourg is 40 hours, averaged over a reference period, usually four months. Overtime work is regulated, requiring either additional pay or compensatory time off.

Luxembourg offers one of the highest minimum wages in Europe, adjusted regularly based on inflation. Both employers and employees contribute to a comprehensive social security system that covers healthcare, pensions, and unemployment benefits. Employees also receive generous benefits, including paid vacation (typically 25 days), parental leave, and sick leave.

Employee rights are strongly protected in Luxembourg. Termination procedures are stringent, requiring justification and possible severance pay. Trade unions play a significant role in collective bargaining agreements. The law also promotes a healthy work-life balance, with limitations on night work and mandatory rest breaks.

Thorough research is essential for any entrepreneur considering Luxembourg as their business base. Understanding the economic environment, legal requirements, taxation, and labour laws is key to navigating the setup process smoothly. With careful preparation and informed decision-making, establishing a business in Luxembourg can lead to stability and growth, leveraging the country’s strategic advantages and supportive business climate.